【大学入試・英語】「比較」出題ポイント!

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【大学入試・英語】「比較」出題ポイント!についてまとめています。

原級の用法

  • You should get up as early as your mother.

同じ程度を表す肯定文には(as ~(原級)as….)を否定文には(not as_so)~(原級)as..)を用いる。

  • He is not asso) tall as you.
  • Nothing is as(so) important as love.

Try as hard as possible.

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原級を用いた重要構文

  • She is not so much a singer as an actress. (~よりはむしろ…)
  • He left the room without so much as saying good-by. (~さえしないで)
  • She is as great a violinist as ever lived. (これまでのだれにも劣らず)
  • I waited five minutes – they seemed as many hours to me. (同数の)

倍数

  • He has three times as many books as I.
    倍数を表すのに(X times[twice, half] as ~ as ….の形を用いる。(X times[twice, half] + 比較 級 + than….)の形が使われることもある。

比較級の用法

  • The higher we go up, the colder the air becomes.

比較級に the を用いる場合

  • He is the taller of the two. (2人のうちの~の方)
  • I like her all the better for her faults. (…のためにそれだけますます~)

ラテン語系の比較級

  • She is superior to me in math.

ラテン語系の比較級(superior, inferior, junior, senior)では than ではなくて to を伴う。

最上級の用法

  • Osaka is the third largest city in Japan.

最上級を用いた慣用表現

  • To the best of my knowledge, he is the best player on our team. (私の知る限り)
  • You should study for at least three hours a day. (少なくとも)

書き換え

原線→ 比較級→最上級の書き換え

  • No (other) mountain in Japan is as high as Mt. Fuji.
    = Mt. Fuji is higher than any other mountain in Japan.
    = Mt. Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan.

比較級の重要表現

  • A whale is no more a fish than a horse is. cf. A whale is no less a mammal than a horse is.
  • As she grew, she became more and more silent.

比較級を用いた表現には, 肯定・否定がセットになっているものが多い。

  • no more than ~「たったの~,わずか~」( = only ~)
  • no less than ~ 「~も(の)」( = as many [much] as ~)
  • not more than ~「せいぜい~, 多くて~」( = at most ~)
  • not less than ~「少なくとも~」( = at least ~)
  • more or less「多かれ少なかれ」
  • sooner or later「遅かれ早かれ」
  • not ~ any more = no more ~「これ以上~でない」
  • not ~ any longer = no longer ~「もはや~でない」

最上級の注意点

  • This lake is deepest at this point.

同一物の比較で、最上級が補語のとき,ふつう the をつけない。

最上級にtheを用いない場合

  • He can run(the) fastest in our class. (副詞の最上級。《米》ではthe をつける方が多い)
  • This is Japan’s most popular summer resort. (所有格が the の代川)
  • She is a most kind woman. (most = very)

even「〜さえも」

  • The wisest man makes mistakes.

最上級に even「〜さえも」を補って解釈する場合がある。前後関係から判断することができる。

比較表現のその他の注意点

  • She can speak French much more fluently than he.
  • Tom is far more diligent than you.
  • I have many more books than she. (more が many の比較級の場合)
  • Ann is the very youngest of us all.
  • He is by far the best player on our team.
  • As long as I live, I’ll never forget your kindness.
    cf. As far as I know, she is a reliable person.

as long as ~:時間の制限・範囲, as far as ~:距離や程度の制限・範囲を表す接続詞。

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