【大学入試・英語】「仮定法」出題ポイント!

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【大学入試・英語】「仮定法」出題ポイント!についてまとめています。

仮定法

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仮定法過去

  • If I were younger, I would go abroad again.

「If + S + 過去形…, S’+助動詞の過去形+原形~」は現在の事実に反する仮定をます。be動詞は人称にかかわらずwereだが、口語では1人称、3人称の単数ではwasも用いられる。

仮定法過去完了

  • If you had come earlier, you could have seen her.

「If + S+ 過去完了形…,S’+助動詞の過去形+ have + p.p. ~」は過去の事 実に反する仮定を表す。

ありえない仮定

  • If I should fail, I would (will) go abroad again.
  • If someone were to give me a million yen, I would buy them all.

「If + S+ should +原形… S’+助動詞+原形~」, 「If + S+ were to +原形…, S’ + 助動詞 の過去形+原形~」は現在・未来の実現性の少ない仮定, あり得ない仮定を表す。

現在(過去)の事実に反する願望

  • I wish I could tel it to her now.
  • I wish I could have told it to her then.

「S wish + 仮定法過去 過去完了」の形が,現在(過去)の事実に反する願望を表す。

It is time

  • It is time you went to bed, children.

「It is time + S+仮定法過去~」で「~してもよいころだ」という意味を表す。

注意すべき仮定法

  • If it were not for air, we could not live. (If it were not for 〜)「もし(今)~がなければ」(仮定法過去)
  • If it had not been for your help, I would have failed in my business.(If it had not been for 〜》「もし(その時)~がなかったなら」(仮定法過去完了)
  • If it had not rained last night, we would be playing the game now. 条件節が仮定法過去完了で,帰結節が仮定法過去になる場合がある。

as if

  • He talks as if he knew everything about Japan.
  • He talks as though he knew everything about Japan.

「S+V+ as if (though] + S’ + 仮定法過去(過去完了)」は「まるで~の「~だったかのように SはVする」の意味。Vの時制と同じ「時」の内容を述べる場合は仮定法過去「前の時」の内容を述べる場合は仮定法過去完了を用いる。

  • He looks as if he had seen a ghost.
  • He looked as though he had seen a ghost.

if節のない仮定法

倒置

  • Had I known the truth, I would have behaved otherwise.= If I had known the truth, ~

if が省略されて, (were [had/should など] + S) の語順(倒置)になることがある。

いろいろな条件の意味

A man of sense would be ashamed of such behavior.などのように、条件の意味が「不定詞」, 「分詞構文」, 「副詞(句)」, 「主語の名詞」などに含まれることがある。

  • 不定詞:To hear him speak English, you would take him for an Englishman.= If you heard [should/were to hear] him speak English, ~
  • 分詞構文:Born in better times, my father would have become a great scholar.= If he had been born in better times, ~ 副詞(句): Without (But for] your help, I couldn’t have done it.= If it had not been for your help, ~
  • 主語の名詞:A wise mother would have understood her child better.= If she had been a wise mother, she would have understood ~

省略

  • It was so quiet. You could have heard a pin drop.

「もし~ならば」の部分(条件節)が省略されて,帰結節だけの場合がある。一般に過去形の助動詞があればこの構文と考えてよい。

その他の注意すべき表現

that節の中で,仮定法現在

  • I suggested that he come with me to this meeting.

(提案)(要求)を表す動詞の目的語になる that節の中で,仮定法現在(動詞の原形)が用いられることがある。〈英〉では should を用いるほうが多い。

would rather

  • Do you mind if I smoke here? I would rather you didn’t,

(S would rather(that) S’+仮定法過去〉「むしろ~ならいいのに」

as it were

  • He is, as it were, a walking dictionary.

「as it were」「いわば」= so to speak[say]

例外1

  • The man disappeared suddenly as if by magic.
  • Tom waved his hand as if to say good-bye.

as if の後に節ではなくて, 副詞句や to 不定詞が続くことがある。

例外2

  • He said, “If I were younger, I would have an adventure.”→ He said that if he were younger he would have an adventure.
  • He said, “If it is fine tomorrow, I’ll go out.” →He said that if it was fine the next day, he would go out.

仮定法は時制の一致に従わない。単なる条件文の場合には従う。

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